Dorothy Mary Hodgkin was one of the foremost English scientists of the twentieth century. Despite a turbulent upbringing and a lifetime of chronic illness, she contributed significant discoveries that had (and continue to have) a global impact.
Along with a number of other awards both at home and abroad, Dorothy was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry for her endeavours. She was a specialist in X-ray crystallography and started in the field when methods were relatively primitive. Her work advanced the available techniques and resulted in the structural mapping of various substances that are fundamental to modern life, including insulin, penicillin, and vitamin B12.